Getting Gigascale Chips: Challenges and Opportunities in Continuing Moore’s Law

Processor performance has increased by five orders of magnitude in the last three decades, made possible by following Moore’s law – that is, continued technology scaling, improved transistor performance to increase frequency, additional (to avoid repetition) integration capacity to realize complex architectures, and reduced energy consumed per logic operation to keep power dissipation within limits. Advances in software technology, such as rich multimedia applications and runtime systems, exploited this performance explosion, delivering to end users higher productivity, seamless Internet connectivity, and even multimedia and entertainment.